Java Secure HTTP Keys, Part II

In my last article, I described the process of configuring client-side key and trust stores within a Java web client application. To keep it simple, I purposely used the built-in functionality of HttpsURLConnection to read certain System properties to obtain references to these credential stores, along with their passwords.

However, for an embedded client–as would be the case with library code–you’d not want to rely on any System properties, because these belong to your user and her application, not to your library. But, manually configuring the key and trust stores for a client-side https connection is a little more involved.

In this article, I’d like to show you how it’s done, and I’d like to begin by suggesting some required reading for a solid understanding of the way it all works. I’m referring to the Java Secure Socket Extensions (JSSE) Reference Guide. Since JSSE was introduced in Java 1.4, and hasn’t really changed much since then, this document is officially up to date–even in Java SE 6.

Getting Started…

Note that the process for setting up the key and trust stores hasn’t changed, so I’ll simply refer you to my previous article for this information.

To summarize, the goal here is to associate our key and trust stores with our client-side connections without specifying them in System properties. And it’s amazing the amount of extra work we have to go through in order to accomplish this seemingly simple task.

The first thing we’ll do is remove the calls to System.setProperty in our AuditRestClient constructor. We still need the values we wrote to those properties, so we’ll just convert them to constants in the AuditRestClient class. At some later point, these should undoubtedly be converted to properties that we read from our own configuration file, but for now, these constants will do:

  public class AuditRestClient
  {
    // URL components (should be configured variables)
    private static final String HTTP = "HTTP";
    private static final String HTTPS = "HTTPS";
    private static final String HOSTNAME = "10.0.0.1";
    private static final Integer PORT = 9015;

    // secure channel key material stores (should be configured)
    private static final String keystore = "/tmp/keystore.jks";
    private static final String truststore = "/tmp/truststore.jks";
    private static final String keypass = "changeit";
    private static final String trustpass = "changeit";

    // secure channel variables
    private Boolean isSecure = true;
    private SSLSocketFactory sslSocketFactory = null;

    public AuditRestClient()
    {
      setupSocketFactory();
    }
    ...

Building Your Own Socket Factory

The new version of the AuditRestClient constructor calls a private method called setupSocketFactory, which configures an SSLSocketFactory object for use later when we configure our HttpsURLConnection object. Here’s the code:

    ...
    private void setupSocketFactory()
    {
      try
      {
        String protocol = "TLS";
        String type = "JKS";
        String algorithm = KeyManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm();
        String trustAlgorithm =
            TrustManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm();

        // create and initialize an SSLContext object
        SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance(protocol);
        sslContext.init(getKeyManagers(type, algorithm),
            getTrustManagers(type, trustAlgorithm),
            new SecureRandom());

        // obtain the SSLSocketFactory from the SSLContext
        sslSocketFactory = sslContext.getSocketFactory();
      }
      catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }
    }
    ...

This private helper method calls two other private methods, getKeyManagers and getTrustManagers to configure the key and trust stores. Each of these two routines also call a routine named getStore to obtain the key and trust stores from the configured key and trust managers. Again, here’s the code for all three of these methods:

    ...
    private KeyStore getStore(String type,
        String filename, String pwd) throws Exception
    {
      KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(type);
      InputStream istream = null;

      try
      {
        File ksfile = new File(filename);
        istream = new FileInputStream(ksfile);
        ks.load(istream, pwd != null? pwd.toCharArray(): null);
      }
      finally { if (istream != null) istream.close(); }

      return ks;
    }

    private KeyManager[] getKeyManagers(String type,
        String algorithm) throws Exception
    {
      KeyStore ks = getStore(type, keyStore, keyPass);
      KeyManagerFactory kmf =
          KeyManagerFactory.getInstance(algorithm);

      kmf.init(ks, keypass.toCharArray());

      return kmf.getKeyManagers();
    }

    private TrustManager[] getTrustManagers(String type,
        String algorithm) throws Exception
    {
      KeyStore ts = getStore(type, trustStore, trustPass);
      TrustManagerFactory tmf =
          TrustManagerFactory.getInstance(algorithm);

      tmf.init(ts);

      return tmf.getTrustManagers();
    }
    ...

The getStore method calls KeyStore.getInstance to obtain an instance of the key store associated with the specified type–in this case, “JKS”. It should be noted that if you wish to specify your own provider, you may do so by calling the other version of KeyStore.getInstance, which accepts a string provider name, as well.

Using Your New Socket Factory

Now that you have your socket factory built (whew!), it’s time to look at how it’s used by the rest of the AuditRestClient code. Here’s the context for the use of the new object:

    public void send(JSONObject event)
    {
      byte[] bytes = event.toString().getBytes();
      HttpURLConnection conn = null;

      try
      {
        URL url = new URL(isSecure? HTTPS: HTTP,
            HOSTNAME, PORT, "/audit/log/test");
        conn = (HttpURLConnection)url.openConnection();
        if (isSecure)
        {
          HttpsURLConnection sconn = (HttpsURLConnection)conn;
          sconn.setSSLSocketFactory(sslSocketFactory);
        }
        conn.setRequestMethod("POST");
        conn.addRequestProperty("Content-Length", "" + bytes.length);
        conn.addRequestProperty("Content-Type", CTYPE);
        conn.addRequestProperty("Connection", "Keep-Alive");
        conn.setDoOutput(true);
        conn.setDoInput(true);
        conn.connect();
        ...

Now, this code is completely independent of application owned System properties. Additionally, it’s portable between secure and non-secure HTTP channels. This protocol portability requires a type cast of the connection from HttpURLConnection to HttpsURLConnection in one place (as highlighted in the example above in bold text).

You may have also noticed that I converted the previous version of send to use the other popular form of the URL constructor. This form accepts constituent parts of the URL as separate parameters, rather than as a single string. It’s a bit more efficient under the covers, as the constructor doesn’t need to parse these components from the URL string. It made more sense on my end, as well since I’m parameterizing several of these parts now anyway. Attributes like HOSTNAME and PORT will eventually be read from a library configuration file.

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3 comments on “Java Secure HTTP Keys, Part II

  1. Viral says:

    Great Great Great Post!!!
    Thank you so much..I am new to this and I was so confused over certificate authentication using JAVA..
    Great work..keep it up!!

    Thank you so much again for all the time you have taken to put this great post!!!

  2. Peter Adelmann says:

    This is a great example; don’t know why the implementation in the jdk is such a mess. You’ve clarified for me anyway. Now if I can just figure out how to dynamically generate a private key for PBE, I’ll be good to go.
    Thanks!!

  3. [...] Java Secure HTTP Client Key Management Part 2 [...]

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